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On this page you can find material from the book Human Geography of the UK. To find out more about the book, please go to the book overview.

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Chapter 1: Maps … a different view of the United Kingdom

Figure 1.1: The constituencies which never were
Figure 1.1: The constituencies which never were
Figure 1.2: How many people were aged 18 in the year 2000?
Figure 1.2: How many people were aged 18 in the year 2000?
Figure 1.3: Proportion aged 18 in the year 2000
Figure 1.3: Proportion aged 18 in the year 2000
Figure 1.4 Who got to go to University? (% 18 Year Old in the Year 2000)
Figure 1.4 Who got to go to University? (% 18 Year Old in the Year 2000)
Figure 1.7: Difference between Observed and expected university entry rates allowing for the geography of children's social class
Figure 1.7: Difference between Observed and expected university entry rates allowing for the geography of children's social class

Chapter 2: Birth … and the suburban pied piper

Figure 2.5: Where eighteen-year-olds moved from birth to year 2000
Figure 2.5: Where eighteen-year-olds moved from birth to year 2000
Figure 2.7: In-migration of children as a proportion of out-migration
Figure 2.7: In-migration of children as a proportion of out-migration
Figure 2.8: Babies born to teenagers in Britain 1991-1998
Figure 2.8: Babies born to teenagers in Britain 1991-1998
Figure 2.10: Babies born to mothers aged 35 or over 1991-1998
Figure 2.10: Babies born to mothers aged 35 or over 1991-1998

Chapter 3: Education … the sorting out of the children

Figure 3.1: Children doing well at age 11, per child doing poorly, 1998.
Figure 3.1: Children doing well at age 11, per child doing poorly, 1998.
Figure 3.2: Children achieving no qualifications by age 15/16, 1993-1999
Figure 3.2: Children achieving no qualifications by age 15/16, 1993-1999
Figure 3.3: Children achieving few qualifications by age 15/16, 1993-1999
Figure 3.3: Children achieving few qualifications by age 15/16, 1993-1999
Figure 3.4: Children achieving low qualifications by age 15/16, 1993-1999
Figure 3.4: Children achieving low qualifications by age 15/16, 1993-1999
Figure 3.6: Children attending private schools 1993-1999 at age 15
Figure 3.6: Children attending private schools 1993-1999 at age 15
Figure 3.7: Annual decline in children given low qualifications 1993-1999
Figure 3.7: Annual decline in children given low qualifications 1993-1999
Figure 3.8: Students aged 16+ in education in 2001 (numbers)
Figure 3.8: Students aged 16+ in education in 2001 (numbers)
Figure 3.9: University graduates aged 21+ in 2001
Figure 3.9: University graduates aged 21+ in 2001
Figure 3.10: Change in area share of graduates aged 21+, 1971-2001
Figure 3.10: Change in area share of graduates aged 21+, 1971-2001
 

Chapter 4: Identity … labelling people and places

Figure 4.1: Women and men and the sexing of places in Britain
Figure 4.1: Women and men and the sexing of places in Britain
Figure 4.2: Age and the ageing of place in Britain
Figure 4.2: Age and the ageing of place in Britain
Figure 4.3: Ethnicity and the colour of place in Britain 2001
Figure 4.3: Ethnicity and the colour of place in Britain 2001
Figure 4.4: Religion and the spirituality of place in Britain
Figure 4.4: Religion and the spirituality of place in Britain
Figure 4.5: Single, married, divorced, remarried and widowed in Britain
Figure 4.5: Single, married, divorced, remarried and widowed in Britain
Figure 4.6: Through the keyhole: household composition in Britain
Figure 4.6: Through the keyhole: household composition in Britain
Figure 4.7: Migration in England and Wales 2000 to 2001
Figure 4.7: Migration in England and Wales 2000 to 2001
Figure 4.8: Lifetime and annual immigration to Britain by 2001
Figure 4.8: Lifetime and annual immigration to Britain by 2001
 Figure 4.9: Highest level of qualification gained by people in Britain 2001
Figure 4.9: Highest level of qualification gained by people in Britain 2001
Figure 4.10: Social class as defined largely by occupation in 2001
Figure 4.10: Social class as defined largely by occupation in 2001

Chapter 5: Politics … counting democracy, wasting votes

Figure 5.1: Labour candidates elected as MPs in 2001 in Britain (%)
Figure 5.1: Labour candidates elected as MPs in 2001 in Britain (%)
Figure 5.2: Proportion of electorate voting Labour in 2001 in Britain
Figure 5.2: Proportion of electorate voting Labour in 2001 in Britain
Figure 5.3: Labour votes (ratio) per Labour MP elected in 2001 in Britain
Figure 5.3: Labour votes (ratio) per Labour MP elected in 2001 in Britain
Figure 5.4: Change in Bias towards Labour 1997 to 2001
Figure 5.4: Change in Bias towards Labour 1997 to 2001
Figure 5.5: Proportion of the electorate abstaining in 2001 in Britain
Figure 5.5: Proportion of the electorate abstaining in 2001 in Britain
Figure 5.6: Increase in the electorate abstaining 1997-2001 in Britain
Figure 5.6: Increase in the electorate abstaining 1997-2001 in Britain
Figure 5.8: MPs in 2001 educated in non-selective state schools
Figure 5.8: MPs in 2001 educated in non-selective state schools
Figure 5.9: Proportion of voters not having their wish honoured, 2001
Figure 5.9: Proportion of voters not having their wish honoured, 2001
Figure 5.10: Proportion of voters not represented had PR been used in 2001
Figure 5.10: Proportion of voters not represented had PR been used in 2001
 

Chapter 6: Inequality … income, poverty and wealth

Figure 6.1: Barclays' customers earning over 60,000 a year in 2002
Figure 6.1: Barclays' customers earning over 60,000 a year in 2002
Figure 6.2: Barclays' customers average earnings per year in 2003 ()
Figure 6.2: Barclays' customers average earnings per year in 2003 ()
Figure 6.3: Barclays' customers adjusted earnings per year in 2003 ()
Figure 6.3: Barclays' customers adjusted earnings per year in 2003 ()
Figure 6.4: People living below half average income in Britain, 2000 (%)
Figure 6.4: People living below half average income in Britain, 2000 (%)
Figure 6.6: Levels of poverty in Britain by UN definitions, 2000
Figure 6.6: Levels of poverty in Britain by UN definitions, 2000
Figure 6.7: Proportion of adults who are functionally illiterate in Britain
Figure 6.7: Proportion of adults who are functionally illiterate in Britain
Figure 6.8: Proportion of the population dying by the age of 60 in Britain
Figure 6.8: Proportion of the population dying by the age of 60 in Britain
     

Chapter 7: Health … the sedimentation of society

Figure 7.1: All-cause Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.1: All-cause Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.2: Tuberculosis Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.2: Tuberculosis Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.3: HIV disease infections: Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.3: HIV disease infections: Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.4: Lung Cancer Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.4: Lung Cancer Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.5: Skin Cancer Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.5: Skin Cancer Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.6: Cervical cancer Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.6: Cervical cancer Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.7: Heart Attack Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.7: Heart Attack Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.8: Cerebrovascular disease Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.8: Cerebrovascular disease Mortality ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.9: Mortality caused by fire ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.9: Mortality caused by fire ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.10: Mortality by hanging ratios in Britain 1996-2000
Figure 7.10: Mortality by hanging ratios in Britain 1996-2000

Chapter 8

Figure 8.1: Employment in manufacturing in the UK, 1991-2000
Figure 8.1: Employment in manufacturing in the UK, 1991-2000
Figure 8.2: Employment in finance in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.2: Employment in finance in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.3: Employment in elementary occupations in the UK, 1991-2000
Figure 8.3: Employment in elementary occupations in the UK, 1991-2000
Figure 8.4: Employment in professional occupations in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.4: Employment in professional occupations in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.5: People employed to work Full-time in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.5: People employed to work Full-time in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.6: People who are permanently sick in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.6: People who are permanently sick in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.7: People who are not unemployed in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.7: People who are not unemployed in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.8: Lone parents not in work in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.8: Lone parents not in work in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.9: Two parents both work in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.9: Two parents both work in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.10: Adults with a long-term illness in the UK, 1991-2001
Figure 8.10: Adults with a long-term illness in the UK, 1991-2001

Chapter 9

Figure 9.1: Population density in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.1: Population density in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.2: Population potential in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.2: Population potential in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.3: Change in population potential in Britain in 1991-2001
Figure 9.3: Change in population potential in Britain in 1991-2001
Figure 9.4: Change in the proportion of people living in flats, 1991-2001
Figure 9.4: Change in the proportion of people living in flats, 1991-2001
Figure 9.5: People by dominant economic activity in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.5: People by dominant economic activity in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.6: Tenure of households in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.6: Tenure of households in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.7: Households with seven or more rooms in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.7: Households with seven or more rooms in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.8: Households with three or more cars in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.8: Households with three or more cars in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.9: The landscape of unpaid care for the ill in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.9: The landscape of unpaid care for the ill in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.10: Institutional care in old age and illness in Britain, 2001
Figure 9.10: Institutional care in old age and illness in Britain, 2001

Chapter 10

Figure 10.1: A different view of the world - its children in 2001
Figure 10.1: A different view of the world - its children in 2001
Figure 10.2: Severe water deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.2: Severe water deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.3: Severe sanitation deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.3: Severe sanitation deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.4: Severe shelter deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.4: Severe shelter deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.5: Severe information deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.5: Severe information deprivation for children in the world, 2000
 	Figure 10.6: Severe education deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.6: Severe education deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.7: Severe food deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.7: Severe food deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.8: Severe health care deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.8: Severe health care deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.9: Severe overall deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.9: Severe overall deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.10: Absolute overall deprivation for children in the world, 2000
Figure 10.10: Absolute overall deprivation for children in the world, 2000

Animation

Using the data in the file 'Extra2_elections_1832_2001.xls', we have created an animation showing the winners of each seat for every election from 1832 to 2001.

Help

Excel Files

There is one Excel file per chapter, plus some extra ones. These can all be downloaded together (click on 'Files') , or seperately under the page for each chapter. If you don't have Microsoft Excel, you can download the viewer.

Each file contains all the Figures, Tables and Data used in each chapter. These excel sheets can be manipulated. For example, by selecting the cells that contain a map and altering the "conditional formatting" of those cells alternative shading and classification schemes can be employed. By altering the data to which the figures in the "Labels" spreadsheets refer to entirely different maps can be drawn. By manipulating the data new data and information can be generated. In almost all cases the data is given in more detail, for smaller geographical units, than are used in the figures. The file Extra1_detailed_map shows how that more detailed data can be mapped and gives population data not included in the book, and the file Extra2_elections_1832_1997 provides more data which there was not space in the book to show. In those chapters where the Figures are not all dynamically linked to the data a dynamic map sheet is provided to allow for this. A final file provides the text of the appendix: Extra3_appendix.

Maps

There are several figures taken from each chapter available here in colour. Simply click on the small 'thumbnail' image to see the larger image. You can save these by right-clicking (if you are a Windows user) and choosing 'Save picture as'. If you would like all of these images for your own use, click on 'Files' on the menu.

Please acknowledge the source if you use this material in your own work.

The maps show European Parlimentary constituencies drawn up in 1999. Details of these can be found in the file Excel File Extra 3. Figure 1.1 is the index map, where you can locate the constituency you are interested in.

You are used to a particular map of the United Kingdom. This is the map you grew up with, the one used in most textbooks and which appears on television every evening in the weather reports, the map which shows the country as it appears from space. However, looking at the United Kingdom from space is not the best way to see its human geography. More people live in London than Scotland for instance. The alternative map of the UK, shown in Figure 1.1, presents a picture which tries to give the people of the UK fairer representation and which allows us to see variations within large cities alongside variations between regions and between more rural areas simultaneously. The map is of the 85 constituencies drawn up in 1999 for the European Parliamentary elections of that year. Northern Ireland was defined as one large constituency that would return 3 members of the parliament. At the last minute the UK government chose a different voting system for that election and so these areas were not used in that election. We use them here as they present a way of grouping the population of the UK into large adjacent areas each containing roughly the same number of people. Each is given equal prominence on the map (although some are a little taller than others).

While you may not be used to the map shown in Figure 1.1 the names of the areas on that map listed in the file 'Extra3_appendix.xls' should hopefully be a little more familiar. These are the labels for the 85 constituencies used in this book. Most are named after old counties or parts of counties. They were designed to each contain roughly half a million electors (people aged 18 or over) and to combine together those electors who had most in common geographically (although see the exercise at the end of Chapter 5 to ascertain the veracity of such a claim. Once you have identified your constituency you can see where, on this new map of the UK, you have lived.

Figure 1.1 shows not only each area of the country draw roughly in proportion to the size of its population, but also gives each area a height. The disadvantage of showing a topography (surface) is that some areas can be slightly obscured behind others which then appear more prominent. An angle of view also has to be chosen and that too influences what is seen. The advantage of showing a topography is that it is always possible to view what is being mapped in relation to another variable depicted by the height of each area. In physical geography it is height itself which is usually depicted, rivers run down mountains, temperature tends to fall as the land rises and so on. In human geography there is no single obvious variable to use to map the basic contours of the social landscape. However many social variables produce very similar landscapes and so the precise choice is not critical. Here I have taken the first life chances measured in this book (in Figure 1.5) as this should be of interest to the anticipated reader. Height on all the maps drawn here is in proportion to a child's chances of not winning a place to attend university. These chances have been turned into a categorical variable to simplify the landscape. The higher an area appears the fewer people growing up there go on to university.